There is often the notion that challenging behaviour in class interferes with teaching and therefore it is the child or young person at fault. However in reality, the misbehaviour of some pupils is often a camouflage to hide a whole host of other challenges that the child or young person may be experiencing in class, like, for example speech and language difficulties that prevent communication or writing.
Let us look at some of the theories behind challenging behaviour in classrooms, and think about how we as teachers can tweak what we say and do to have a more profound impact on children’s behaviour.
If we were to explore the significance of emotional development and how that links to effective teaching and learning in the classroom, particularly for children with needs in social emotional and mental health (SEMH), what would we find?
Childhood and adolescent behaviour difficulties such as verbal or physical abuse, aggression, and dishonesty are often exhibited by disruptive attitudes towards others (Goodman 2001). These behaviours have a profound effect on others, as well as themselves. In 2013, after Browne explored strategies and interventions for dealing with disruptive behaviour, she raised the point that strategies are usually developed based on the needs of teachers to maintain an orderly classroom, rather than to focus on the specific behavioural needs of the student. If these strategies are ineffective, this can often lead to children or young people being stigmatised and unwanted because of their needs and challenging behaviour. Having seen the latter situation many times in different schools and phases, I decided to carry out a project that would look at strategies teachers could use , linked to Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs (1943).
Maslow’s theory of Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow was a psychologist who studied positive human qualities and the lives of exemplary people (timvandevall.com, 2016). As depicted in the figure here, his theory highlighted that a person’s basic needs must be met before one can reach self-actualisation. Self-actualisation refers to the need for self-fulfilment and being aware of ones’ potential. This was considered a motivational theory in his time.
Literature pertaining to student engagement and behaviour highlights that engaged students associate their teachers with care and support as well as running a well-organised classroom with high expectations (Klem and Connell, 2004). Studies show that there are close links between how happy children are made to feel in the classroom, and how much they learn (Hardiman, 2012).
The rationale behind the project was to ascertain whether a group of teachers who were trained on Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchy (1943), could have a positive impact on behaviour and progress of selected pupils with social, emotional and mental health (SEMH) needs, by using specific teaching strategies linked to the theory. The strategies were formulated based on the main areas of the hierarchy. For example, the strategies for the Physiological need were linked to the pupils’ basic and health needs, necessary to concentrate in class, such as sleep, water, breakfast, physical comfort.
Examples of strategies can be seen in the table:
Results of the ten-week project clearly showed that where pupils’ basic and emotional needs were met, their behaviour and progress in learning improved. This supports the notion that teachers who care about their pupils, who show respect, resilience and understanding, tend to get better results in terms of relationships and progress data (Miller, 2008).
Through the data sets, discussions, and outcomes, it was evident that the teachers who were involved in the project gained a better understanding of how to interpret, manage and improve pupil behaviour. Teachers indicated that they believed their future practice in attending to the basic and emotional needs of their challenging students will improve because of what they have experienced and discovered during the project.